# Configuring SSH Support for CVS and Subversion

Tunneling your CVS or Subversion connections over SSH can provide an added level of security for your repository access. CVS and Subversion use very similar methods for tunneling over an SSH connection. On Windows, download and install Putty or Cygwin to provide SSH support. Linux and OS X distributions typically include SSH support.

This is a basic guideline for configuring CVS and Subversion to use SSH, however, because server configurations can vary, you should consult the documentation for the control system you are using, or request help from you system administrator.

The use of Pageant (on Windows) or ssh-agent (OS X and Linux) with Komodo is strongly recommended.

#### Installing and Configuring Putty on Windows

Putty is a free SSH, Telnet and Rlogin client for Windows.

1. Install Putty

http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/putty/

To connect to a server via SSH, the following programs are required:

• putty.exe
• puttygen.exe
• pageant.exe
• pscp.exe
• plink.exe

Ensure that the directory where Putty is installed is specified in your system’s PATH environment variable.

2. Generate the Putty Key

Run the puttygen utility. Configure as follows:

1. Set Parameters: Select either “SSH2 RSA” or “SSH2 DSA”.
2. Generate Key Pair: Click the Generate button to generate the key pair. While the key is being generated, move the mouse pointer around the blank space to provide key randomness.
3. Enter Key Passphrase: Enter and confirm a passphrase for the key. Remember the passphrase - it is required later.
4. Save Public Key: Click the Save public key button and store the key in a file called public1.key.
5. Save Private Key: Click the Save private key button and store the key in a file called private1.key, in the same directory as the public key.
Note: The extension .ppk will be appended to the name specified (i.e. private1.key.ppk).
6. Copy Key Contents: Copy the contents of the public key field (at the top of the dialog box) to a file named public1-openssh.key. This key is required later.
7. Close puttygen

3. Load and Configure the Putty Authentication Agent

Run the pageant program. This loads the Putty Authentication Agent into the Windows System Tray.

Right-click the Pageant icon in the Windows System Tray. Select Add Key. Navigate to the directory where you saved the public and private keys in the previous step, and select the file private1.key.ppk.

4. Configure Putty To Use Pageant

Run the putty program. Configure as follows:

1. Specify Server: On the Session page of the Configuration form, enter the host name or IP address of the server.
2. Specify Protocol: On the Session page, in the Protocol field, select the “SSH” protocol.
3. Create Saved Session: In the Saved Sessions field, enter the host name again. Click the Save button.
5. Configure SSH Protocol: On the SSH page of the Configuration form, specify “2” for the Preferred SSH protocol version.
6. Enable Agent Forwarding: On the Auth page of the Configuration form, check Allow agent forwarding. In the Private key file for authentication field, specify the path and filename of the private key created above (private1.key).
7. Save Session Information: On the Session page of the Configuration form, click the Save button.

5. Store the Public Key on the Server

You must store the public key file generated in step 2 (public1-openssh.key) on the CVS or Subversion server.

1. Open Command Prompt Window: Type cmd in the Windows Run dialog box.
2. Copy Public Key to Server: At the command prompt, enter:

pscp _c:\path\to\_public1-openssh.key _username@server.com_:public1-openssh.key


…where c:\path\to\public1-openssh.key specifies the location of the key file created in step two, and username@server.com specifies your username and URL on the remote server. You are prompted to confirm the legitimacy of the host, and may be prompted to enter your password for the server.

3. Connect Using Putty: If necessary, run the putty program. In the Saved Sessions field, double-click the configuration created in Step 4. This establishes a connection to the server.

4. Configure the Key on the Server: After logging on to the server, enter the following commands to configure the SSH key:

mkdir ~/.ssh
chmod 700 .ssh
cat ~/public1-openssh.key >> ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
rm ~/public1-openssh.key
chmod 600 ~/.ssh/*

5. Log Off and Exit Putty: Enter exit to close the session of the server.

6. Test the Configuration

Restart Putty. In the Saved Sessions field, double-click the configuration created in Step 4. You should not be prompted to log in. If you are, the configuration failed. Review the steps above and ensure that they were completed correctly.

#### Using CVS with Putty on Windows

Use the following additional steps if you are using CVS with Komodo.

7. Check Out a CVS Module

1. Create Local CVS Directory: Create a directory to store a copy of the CVS repository.
2. Copy Files to Local Directory: At a command prompt, enter:

set CVS_RSH=plink


…where username@cvs.server.com specifies your username on the CVS server and the URL of the CVS server, repository_name specifies the name of the repository on the server, and _cvsmodule specifies the name of the module in the chosen working repository.

Login is handled by SSH. The files are copied to the local system. These environment variables do not interfere with non-SSH repositories.

Ensure that these variables are permanently configured in your system environment (for example, by adding them to the autoexec.bat file or configuring them in the system properties).

8. Using Komodo and CVS

Before starting Komodo, perform the following steps:

• Set PLINK_PROTOCOL=ssh: In the user environment, set the environment variable PLINK_PROTOCOL to “ssh”.
• Set CVS_RSH=plink: In the user environment, set the environment variable CVS_RSH to “plink”.
• Ensure Pageant Is Running: Run the pageant program to enable the authentication agent. Ensure that the private1.key is loaded.

You can also execute Pageant and load the key via a batch file. For example:

C:\PuTTY\pageant.exe c:\path\to\private.key c:\path\to\private2.key


#### Using Subversion with Putty on Windows

Use the following additional steps if you are using Subversion with Komodo.

7. Check Out a Subversion Repository

1. Create Local Subversion Directory: Create a directory to store a copy of the Subversion repository.
2. Copy Files to Local Directory: At a command prompt, enter:

svn checkout svn+ssh://_svn.server.com_/_repository_path/module/_ _local_path_


…where svn.server.com specifies the server domain name of the Subversion server, _repositorypath/module specifies the path of the repository on the server, and _localpath specifies the preferred location on your local system for your copy of the repository. The _localpath can be ommited, in which case the local path is the last part of the repository_path.

Login is handled by SSH. The files are copied to the local system.

Ensure that these variables are permanently configured in your system environment (for example, by adding them to the autoexec.bat file or configuring them in the system properties).

8. Using Komodo and Subversion

Set the following environment variables in Environment Preferences:

• PLINK_PROTOCOL=ssh
• SVN_SSH=c:/path/to/plink.exe -batch

Specify the full path to plink.exe using forward slashes “/” or escaped back slashes “\”. The -batch argument is used to prevent plink from prompting for user input. You can specify a specific private key by adding “-i C:/path/to/private_keyfile”. For example:

SVN_SSH="c:/path/to/plink.exe" -i "c:/path/to/private_keyfile"


You can use the Subversion configuration file instead of setting the SVN_SSH environment variable:

[tunnels]
ssh = $SVN_SSH plink.exe  This permits configuration of different connection types. The config file is located in the Subversion directory, typically inside the Application Data area of the user’s profile directory (eg. C:\Documents and Settings\USERNAME\Application Data\Subversion). See the Subversion documentation for more information. If you use “plink =$SVN_SSH plink.exe” in the tunnels section of the config file, use “svn+plink” for your checkout url rather than “svn+ssh”.

Run pageant to enable the authentication agent. Ensure that the private1.key is loaded. You can start Pageant and load the key using a batch file. For example:

C:\PuTTY\pageant.exe c:\path\to\private.key c:\path\to\private2.key


#### Configuring CVS with Windows/Cygwin-SSH or Linux/SSH

On all platforms, create an environment variable as follows:

CVS_RSH=ssh


CVS determines when to use SSH, depending on how you check out the modules. If you use the “cvs login” method with the “pserver” protocol, CVS does not use SSH, even if CVS_RSH=ssh is set in the environment.

On Windows, also configure the cygwin SSH Agent as follows:

1. Open a cygwin shell.
2. Enter exec ssh-agent bash.
3. Enter ssh-add /path/to/public/key (e.g. ‘ssh-add /.ssh/id_rsa.pub’)
4. To check out a CVS module, enter:

cvs -d :ext:_username@cvs.server.com_:/_repository_name_ co _cvs_module_


…where username@cvs.server.com specifies your username on the CVS server and the URL of the CVS server, _repositoryname specifies the name of the repository on the server, and _cvsmodule specifies the name of the module in the chosen working repository.

5. Start Komodo within the cygwin shell as follows:

_/path/to/komodo_/bin/komodo


After completing the configuration steps above, follow these steps to open Komodo with CVS-SSH enabled:

1. Open a cygwin shell.
2. Enter exec ssh-agent bash.
3. Enter ssh-add /path/to/public/key (e.g. ‘ssh-add ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub’)
4. Start Komodo within the cygwin shell as follows:
_/path/to/_komodo/komodo.exe


#### Configuring Subversion with SSH on Linux or Mac OS X

Subversion determines when to use SSH depending on how you check out the modules. If you use http:// or file:/// URIs, Subversion will not use SSH.

To use subversion with SSH, do the following before starting Komodo:

1. Open a shell.
2. Enter exec ssh-agent bash.
3. Enter ssh-add /path/to/public/key (e.g. ‘ssh-add ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub’)
4. To check out a Subversion module, enter:

svn checkout svn+ssh://_svn.server.com_/_repository_path/module/_ _local_path_


…where svn.server.com specifies the server domain name of the Subversion server, _repositorypath/module specifies the path of the repository on the server, and _localpath specifies the preferred location on your local system for your copy of the repository. The _localpath can be omitted, in which case the local path is the last part of the repository_path.

5. Start Komodo from within the shell. Komodo inherits the environment set in the shell by ssh-agent