Source code: Lib/gzip.py
This module provides a simple interface to compress and decompress files just like the GNU programs gzip and gunzip would.
The data compression is provided by the
gzip module provides the
GzipFile class which is modeled
after Python’s File Object. The
GzipFile class reads and writes
gzip-format files, automatically compressing or decompressing the
data so that it looks like an ordinary file object.
Note that additional file formats which can be decompressed by the gzip and gunzip programs, such as those produced by compress and pack, are not supported by this module.
The module defines the following items:
GzipFile([filename[, mode[, compresslevel[, fileobj[, mtime]]]]])¶
Constructor for the
GzipFileclass, which simulates most of the methods of a file object, with the exception of the
truncate()methods. At least one of fileobj and filename must be given a non-trivial value.
The new class instance is based on fileobj, which can be a regular file, a
StringIOobject, or any other object which simulates a file. It defaults to
None, in which case filename is opened to provide a file object.
When fileobj is not
None, the filename argument is only used to be included in the gzip file header, which may include the original filename of the uncompressed file. It defaults to the filename of fileobj, if discernible; otherwise, it defaults to the empty string, and in this case the original filename is not included in the header.
The mode argument can be any of
'wb', depending on whether the file will be read or written. The default is the mode of fileobj if discernible; otherwise, the default is
'rb'. If not given, the ‘b’ flag will be added to the mode to ensure the file is opened in binary mode for cross-platform portability.
The compresslevel argument is an integer from
9controlling the level of compression;
1is fastest and produces the least compression, and
9is slowest and produces the most compression.
0is no compression. The default is
The mtime argument is an optional numeric timestamp to be written to the stream when compressing. All gzip compressed streams are required to contain a timestamp. If omitted or
None, the current time is used. This module ignores the timestamp when decompressing; however, some programs, such as gunzip, make use of it. The format of the timestamp is the same as that of the return value of
time.time()and of the
st_mtimeattribute of the object returned by
close()method does not close fileobj, since you might wish to append more material after the compressed data. This also allows you to pass a
StringIOobject opened for writing as fileobj, and retrieve the resulting memory buffer using the
Changed in version 2.7: Support for the
withstatement was added.
Changed in version 2.7: Support for zero-padded files was added.
New in version 2.7: The mtime argument.
open(filename[, mode[, compresslevel]])¶
This is a shorthand for
compresslevel). The filename argument is required; mode defaults to
'rb'and compresslevel defaults to
12.2.1. Examples of usage¶
Example of how to read a compressed file:
import gzip with gzip.open('file.txt.gz', 'rb') as f: file_content = f.read()
Example of how to create a compressed GZIP file:
import gzip content = "Lots of content here" with gzip.open('file.txt.gz', 'wb') as f: f.write(content)
Example of how to GZIP compress an existing file:
import gzip import shutil with open('file.txt', 'rb') as f_in, gzip.open('file.txt.gz', 'wb') as f_out: shutil.copyfileobj(f_in, f_out)
- The basic data compression module needed to support the gzip file format.