New in version 3.4.
Source code: Lib/selectors.py
This module allows high-level and efficient I/O multiplexing, built upon the
select module primitives. Users are encouraged to use this module
instead, unless they want precise control over the OS-level primitives used.
It defines a
BaseSelector abstract base class, along with several
concrete implementations (
that can be used to wait for I/O readiness notification on multiple file
objects. In the following, “file object” refers to any object with a
fileno() method, or a raw file descriptor. See file object.
DefaultSelector is an alias to the most efficient implementation
available on the current platform: this should be the default choice for most
The type of file objects supported depends on the platform: on Windows, sockets are supported, but not pipes, whereas on Unix, both are supported (some other types may be supported as well, such as fifos or special file devices).
- Low-level I/O multiplexing module.
BaseSelector +-- SelectSelector +-- PollSelector +-- EpollSelector +-- DevpollSelector +-- KqueueSelector
In the following, events is a bitwise mask indicating which I/O events should be waited for on a given file object. It can be a combination of the modules constants below:
Available for read
Available for write
File object registered.
Underlying file descriptor.
Events that must be waited for on this file object.
Optional opaque data associated to this file object: for example, this could be used to store a per-client session ID.
BaseSelectoris used to wait for I/O event readiness on multiple file objects. It supports file stream registration, unregistration, and a method to wait for I/O events on those streams, with an optional timeout. It’s an abstract base class, so cannot be instantiated. Use
DefaultSelectorinstead, or one of
KqueueSelectoretc. if you want to specifically use an implementation, and your platform supports it.
BaseSelectorand its concrete implementations support the context manager protocol.
register(fileobj, events, data=None)¶
Register a file object for selection, monitoring it for I/O events.
fileobj is the file object to monitor. It may either be an integer file descriptor or an object with a
fileno()method. events is a bitwise mask of events to monitor. data is an opaque object.
Unregister a file object from selection, removing it from monitoring. A file object shall be unregistered prior to being closed.
fileobj must be a file object previously registered.
This returns the associated
SelectorKeyinstance, or raises a
KeyErrorif fileobj is not registered. It will raise
ValueErrorif fileobj is invalid (e.g. it has no
fileno()method or its
fileno()method has an invalid return value).
modify(fileobj, events, data=None)¶
Change a registered file object’s monitored events or attached data.
This is equivalent to
BaseSelector.register(fileobj, events, data)(), except that it can be implemented more efficiently.
Wait until some registered file objects become ready, or the timeout expires.
timeout > 0, this specifies the maximum wait time, in seconds. If
timeout <= 0, the call won’t block, and will report the currently ready file objects. If timeout is
None, the call will block until a monitored file object becomes ready.
This returns a list of
(key, events)tuples, one for each ready file object.
key is the
SelectorKeyinstance corresponding to a ready file object. events is a bitmask of events ready on this file object.
This method can return before any file object becomes ready or the timeout has elapsed if the current process receives a signal: in this case, an empty list will be returned.
Changed in version 3.5: The selector is now retried with a recomputed timeout when interrupted by a signal if the signal handler did not raise an exception (see PEP 475 for the rationale), instead of returning an empty list of events before the timeout.
Close the selector.
This must be called to make sure that any underlying resource is freed. The selector shall not be used once it has been closed.
Return the key associated with a registered file object.
The default selector class, using the most efficient implementation available on the current platform. This should be the default choice for most users.
New in version 3.5.
Here is a simple echo server implementation:
import selectors import socket sel = selectors.DefaultSelector() def accept(sock, mask): conn, addr = sock.accept() # Should be ready print('accepted', conn, 'from', addr) conn.setblocking(False) sel.register(conn, selectors.EVENT_READ, read) def read(conn, mask): data = conn.recv(1000) # Should be ready if data: print('echoing', repr(data), 'to', conn) conn.send(data) # Hope it won't block else: print('closing', conn) sel.unregister(conn) conn.close() sock = socket.socket() sock.bind(('localhost', 1234)) sock.listen(100) sock.setblocking(False) sel.register(sock, selectors.EVENT_READ, accept) while True: events = sel.select() for key, mask in events: callback = key.data callback(key.fileobj, mask)