Source code: Lib/hashlib.py
This module implements a common interface to many different secure hash and message digest algorithms. Included are the FIPS secure hash algorithms SHA1, SHA224, SHA256, SHA384, and SHA512 (defined in FIPS 180-2) as well as RSA’s MD5 algorithm (defined in Internet RFC 1321). The terms “secure hash” and “message digest” are interchangeable. Older algorithms were called message digests. The modern term is secure hash.
If you want the adler32 or crc32 hash functions, they are available in
Some algorithms have known hash collision weaknesses, refer to the “See also” section at the end.
15.1.1. Hash algorithms¶
There is one constructor method named for each type of hash. All return
a hash object with the same simple interface. For example: use
create a SHA-256 hash object. You can now feed this object with bytes-like
bytes) using the
At any point you can ask it for the digest of the
concatenation of the data fed to it so far using the
For better multithreading performance, the Python GIL is released for data larger than 2047 bytes at object creation or on update.
Feeding string objects into
update() is not supported, as hashes work
on bytes, not on characters.
Constructors for hash algorithms that are always present in this module are
md5() is normally available as well, though it
may be missing if you are using a rare “FIPS compliant” build of Python.
Additional algorithms may also be available depending upon the OpenSSL
library that Python uses on your platform. On most platforms the
shake_256() are also available.
New in version 3.6: SHA3 (Keccak) and SHAKE constructors
For example, to obtain the digest of the byte string
b'Nobody inspects the
>>> import hashlib >>> m = hashlib.sha256() >>> m.update(b"Nobody inspects") >>> m.update(b" the spammish repetition") >>> m.digest() b'\x03\x1e\xdd}Ae\x15\x93\xc5\xfe\\\x00o\xa5u+7\xfd\xdf\xf7\xbcN\x84:\xa6\xaf\x0c\x95\x0fK\x94\x06' >>> m.digest_size 32 >>> m.block_size 64
>>> hashlib.sha224(b"Nobody inspects the spammish repetition").hexdigest() 'a4337bc45a8fc544c03f52dc550cd6e1e87021bc896588bd79e901e2'
Is a generic constructor that takes the string name of the desired algorithm as its first parameter. It also exists to allow access to the above listed hashes as well as any other algorithms that your OpenSSL library may offer. The named constructors are much faster than
new()and should be preferred.
new() with an algorithm provided by OpenSSL:
>>> h = hashlib.new('ripemd160') >>> h.update(b"Nobody inspects the spammish repetition") >>> h.hexdigest() 'cc4a5ce1b3df48aec5d22d1f16b894a0b894eccc'
Hashlib provides the following constant attributes:
A set containing the names of the hash algorithms guaranteed to be supported by this module on all platforms. Note that ‘md5’ is in this list despite some upstream vendors offering an odd “FIPS compliant” Python build that excludes it.
New in version 3.2.
A set containing the names of the hash algorithms that are available in the running Python interpreter. These names will be recognized when passed to
algorithms_guaranteedwill always be a subset. The same algorithm may appear multiple times in this set under different names (thanks to OpenSSL).
New in version 3.2.
The following values are provided as constant attributes of the hash objects returned by the constructors:
The size of the resulting hash in bytes.
The internal block size of the hash algorithm in bytes.
A hash object has the following attributes:
The canonical name of this hash, always lowercase and always suitable as a parameter to
new()to create another hash of this type.
Changed in version 3.4: The name attribute has been present in CPython since its inception, but until Python 3.4 was not formally specified, so may not exist on some platforms.
A hash object has the following methods:
Update the hash object with the object arg, which must be interpretable as a buffer of bytes. Repeated calls are equivalent to a single call with the concatenation of all the arguments:
m.update(a); m.update(b)is equivalent to
Changed in version 3.1: The Python GIL is released to allow other threads to run while hash updates on data larger than 2047 bytes is taking place when using hash algorithms supplied by OpenSSL.
digest()except the digest is returned as a string object of double length, containing only hexadecimal digits. This may be used to exchange the value safely in email or other non-binary environments.
Return a copy (“clone”) of the hash object. This can be used to efficiently compute the digests of data sharing a common initial substring.
15.1.2. SHAKE variable length digests¶
shake_256() algorithms provide variable
length digests with length_in_bits//2 up to 128 or 256 bits of security.
As such, their digest methods require a length. Maximum length is not limited
by the SHAKE algorithm.
Return the digest of the data passed to the
update()method so far. This is a bytes object of size
lengthwhich may contain bytes in the whole range from 0 to 255.
15.1.3. Key derivation¶
Key derivation and key stretching algorithms are designed for secure password
hashing. Naive algorithms such as
sha1(password) are not resistant against
brute-force attacks. A good password hashing function must be tunable, slow, and
include a salt.
pbkdf2_hmac(hash_name, password, salt, iterations, dklen=None)¶
The function provides PKCS#5 password-based key derivation function 2. It uses HMAC as pseudorandom function.
The string hash_name is the desired name of the hash digest algorithm for HMAC, e.g. ‘sha1’ or ‘sha256’. password and salt are interpreted as buffers of bytes. Applications and libraries should limit password to a sensible length (e.g. 1024). salt should be about 16 or more bytes from a proper source, e.g.
The number of iterations should be chosen based on the hash algorithm and computing power. As of 2013, at least 100,000 iterations of SHA-256 are suggested.
dklen is the length of the derived key. If dklen is
Nonethen the digest size of the hash algorithm hash_name is used, e.g. 64 for SHA-512.
>>> import hashlib, binascii >>> dk = hashlib.pbkdf2_hmac('sha256', b'password', b'salt', 100000) >>> binascii.hexlify(dk) b'0394a2ede332c9a13eb82e9b24631604c31df978b4e2f0fbd2c549944f9d79a5'
New in version 3.4.
A fast implementation of pbkdf2_hmac is available with OpenSSL. The Python implementation uses an inline version of
hmac. It is about three times slower and doesn’t release the GIL.
scrypt(password, *, salt, n, r, p, maxmem=0, dklen=64)¶
The function provides scrypt password-based key derivation function as defined in RFC 7914.
password and salt must be bytes-like objects. Applications and libraries should limit password to a sensible length (e.g. 1024). salt should be about 16 or more bytes from a proper source, e.g.
n is the CPU/Memory cost factor, r the block size, p parallelization factor and maxmem limits memory (OpenSSL 1.1.0 defaults to 32 MB). dklen is the length of the derived key.
Availability: OpenSSL 1.1+
New in version 3.6.
BLAKE2 takes additional arguments, see hashlib — BLAKE2 hash functions.
- A module to generate message authentication codes using hashes.
- Another way to encode binary hashes for non-binary environments.
- The FIPS 180-2 publication on Secure Hash Algorithms.
- Wikipedia article with information on which algorithms have known issues and what that means regarding their use.
- PKCS #5: Password-Based Cryptography Specification Version 2.0