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Python supports an interesting syntax that lets you define one-line mini-functions on the fly. Borrowed from Lisp, these so-called lambda functions can be used anywhere a function is required.
Example 4.20. Introducing lambda Functions
>>> def f(x): ... return x*2 ... >>> f(3) 6 >>> g = lambda x: x*2 >>> g(3) 6 >>> (lambda x: x*2)(3) 6
To generalize, a lambda function is a function that takes any number of arguments (including optional arguments) and returns the value of a single expression. lambda functions can not contain commands, and they can not contain more than one expression. Don't try to squeeze too much into a lambda function; if you need something more complex, define a normal function instead and make it as long as you want.
|lambda functions are a matter of style. Using them is never required; anywhere you could use them, you could define a separate normal function and use that instead. I use them in places where I want to encapsulate specific, non-reusable code without littering my code with a lot of little one-line functions.|
Here are the lambda functions in apihelper.py:
processFunc = collapse and (lambda s: " ".join(s.split())) or (lambda s: s)
Notice that this uses the simple form of the and-or trick, which is okay, because a lambda function is always true in a boolean context. (That doesn't mean that a lambda function can't return a false value. The function is always true; its return value could be anything.)
Also notice that you're using the split function with no arguments. You've already seen it used with one or two arguments, but without any arguments it splits on whitespace.
Example 4.21. split With No Arguments
>>> s = "this is\na\ttest" >>> print s this is a test >>> print s.split() ['this', 'is', 'a', 'test'] >>> print " ".join(s.split()) 'this is a test'
|This is a multiline string, defined by escape characters instead of triple quotes. \n is a carriage return, and \t is a tab character.|
|split without any arguments splits on whitespace. So three spaces, a carriage return, and a tab character are all the same.|
|You can normalize whitespace by splitting a string with split and then rejoining it with join, using a single space as a delimiter. This is what the info function does to collapse multi-line doc strings into a single line.|
So what is the info function actually doing with these lambda functions, splits, and and-or tricks?
processFunc is now a function, but which function it is depends on the value of the collapse variable. If collapse is true, processFunc(string) will collapse whitespace; otherwise, processFunc(string) will return its argument unchanged.
To do this in a less robust language, like Visual Basic, you would probably create a function that took a string and a collapse argument and used an if statement to decide whether to collapse the whitespace or not, then returned the appropriate value. This would be inefficient, because the function would need to handle every possible case. Every time you called it, it would need to decide whether to collapse whitespace before it could give you what you wanted. In Python, you can take that decision logic out of the function and define a lambda function that is custom-tailored to give you exactly (and only) what you want. This is more efficient, more elegant, and less prone to those nasty oh-I-thought-those-arguments-were-reversed kinds of errors.
Further Reading on lambda Functions
- Python Knowledge Base discusses using lambda to call functions indirectly.
- Python Tutorial shows how to access outside variables from inside a lambda function. (PEP 227 explains how this will change in future versions of Python.)
- The Whole Python FAQ has examples of obfuscated one-liners using lambda.
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