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   Extending Python (directory permisisions w/GetNamedSecurityInfo)

 


SUMMARY

Python has a good framework in place to extend it's capabilites with C or C++. Often this is done for reasons of performance or to give it capabilities that aren't present in it's standard libraries. For example, standard python does not provide a way to acquire file and directory permissions on windows. However, Microsoft's GetSecurityInfo/GetNamedSecurityInfo does and is accessible via C++. We'll look at how one can build a small module that uses GetNamedSecurityInfo to return to python permission information for a file or directory.


Introduction

Extending python, though not nearly as simple as pure python, is reasonably straightforward. The most convenient method of doing this is to seperate the extension into it's own module which would act like any other python module one uses. It is straightforward enough that one can limit the need to use C++ to narrow well-defined extensions and have python manage the rest. Extending python to use Microsoft's Security API is an excellent candidate for this. Of the four security functions that allow one to deal with security descriptors, we're going to look at GetNamedSecurityInfo. Specifically, python is going to be extended so it can get permissions from a filesystem.


Extending Python

There are several ways one can extend python. You can take a raw wrapping approach, SWIG or BPL (Boost Python Libraries) . This extension is simple enough that we're going to wrap the C++ w/out the help of SWIG of BPL. This won't be an extensive discussion about extending python, just enough to serve as a starting point to deciphering and making your own win32 extensions. The approach to wrap has a few standard todos. You need a to:

  • define whatever functions you want to expose
  • manipulate C and python data types
  • create a structure that has references to the functions
  • initialize the module.
Python has helper objects and functions to make this as painless as possible. You need to include Python.h to get access to these.
To define the the function, you need to follow a specific format: static PyObject * module_function
PyObject is the base type of Python Object. The name of the function needs to be the module followed by an '_' followed by the function.

To manipulate data types, there are numerous "Py" functions. The ones used in this extension are:

  • PyList_New(),PyList_Append -- make and add to a python list
  • PyDict_New(),PyDict_SetItem -- make a dictionary and add to a python dictionary
  • PyArg_ParseTuple -- process arguments sent to module
  • PyString_FromString/PyLong_FromUnsignedLong -- convert C datatypes to Python
  • PyArg_ParseTuple -- accept data from python and convert to C

You also need to create a structure of all the functions that you want the Python interpreter to see. To do this you make an array of arrays of type static PyMethodDef. The array needs to end w/a NULL entry to mark it's end.

Finally, you need to initialize the module (which is what happens when the module is imported). This uses another "Py" function called Py_InitModule.

These steps should become clearer once you see all the details of an actual extension.


GetNamedSecurityInfo

GetNamedSecurityInfo retrieves a security descriptor from a string that specifies the object. This works well for strings that contain filenames. A Security Descriptor contains the security information about an object. Of that information, we're primarily concerned with the DACL (discretionary access control list), which contains a list of things that are allowed to interact with the object(in our case the file or directory). Specifically, we will process the ACEs in the DACL, each of which contains the removal/addition of permissions and what SIDs they are assigned to. To get and process the DACL, you need to follow these steps:
  1. GetNamedSecurityInfo -- Get the DACL
  2. GetAclInformation -- get the list of the ACL's in the DACL to go through
  3. GetAce -- get an ACE (which contains the access mask and the SID) from the list
  4. LookupAccountSid-- gives you the domain and name for the SID
The following code goes through those 4 steps in greater detail. Refer to Microsoft MSDN references for info about the various win32 calls made.

Extending Python for Directory Permissions

To setup Visual Studio correctly for building an extension, it is easiest to use a program called compile.py which builds the project for you. The Extension creates a dictionary of user or group plus the access mask. To Python it will look like:
import fileperm
all_perms=fileperm.get_perms(r'\\Simon\share\db\a.txt')

And if you print the perms you'll get something like:

print all_perms
{'\\Everyone': 2032127L, 'Domain\\fred': 1179817L, 'BUILTIN\\Users': 1179817L}

C code


#include 

//win32 security
#include 
#include 
#include 


struct file_perms {
  char user_domain[2050];
  unsigned long user_mask;
};


//This function determines the username and domain
void lookup_sid ( ACCESS_ALLOWED_ACE* pACE, char user_domain[] ) {
	char username[1024]="";
	char domain[1024]="";

	ULONG len_username = sizeof(username);
	ULONG len_domain = sizeof(domain);
	PSID pSID =(PSID)(&(pACE->SidStart));
	SID_NAME_USE sid_name_use;         

	if (!LookupAccountSid(NULL, pSID, 
		username, &len_username, domain, &len_domain, &sid_name_use)){  
		strcpy(user_domain, "unknown");
	} else {
		strcat(user_domain,domain);
		strcat(user_domain,"\\");
		strcat(user_domain,username);
	}


}

//Store the mask and username in the file_perms structure.
//call lookup_sid to get the username
void acl_info( PACL pACL, ULONG AceCount, file_perms fp[]){		
	for (ULONG acl_index = 0;acl_index < AceCount;acl_index++){
		ACCESS_ALLOWED_ACE* pACE;
		
		if (GetAce(pACL, acl_index, (PVOID*)&pACE))			
		{		
			char user_domain[2050]="";	
			lookup_sid(pACE,user_domain);
			strcpy(fp[acl_index].user_domain,user_domain);
			fp[acl_index].user_mask=(ULONG)pACE->Mask;
		}
	}
}

static PyObject *get_perms(PyObject *self, PyObject *args)
{

	PyObject *py_perms = PyDict_New();
	//get file or directory name
    char *file;

    if (!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, "s", &file))
        return NULL;

	//setup security code
	PSECURITY_DESCRIPTOR pSD;
	PACL pDACL; 
    //GetNamedSecurityInfo() will give you the DACL when you ask for
    //DACL_SECURITY_INFORMATION. At this point, you have SIDs in the ACEs contained in the DACL. 
	ULONG result = GetNamedSecurityInfo(file,SE_FILE_OBJECT, DACL_SECURITY_INFORMATION, NULL, NULL, 
	&pDACL, NULL, &pSD);

	if (result != ERROR_SUCCESS){ return NULL;}
	if (result == ERROR_SUCCESS){
		ACL_SIZE_INFORMATION aclSize = {0};
		if(pDACL != NULL){   
			if(!GetAclInformation(pDACL, &aclSize, sizeof(aclSize),
				AclSizeInformation)){
				return NULL;
			}
		}
	
		file_perms *fp = new file_perms[aclSize.AceCount];
		acl_info(pDACL, aclSize.AceCount, fp );
		
		//Dict
		for (ULONG i=0;i




//Boilerplate functions

//3 parts 
//name of python function
//C++ function
//flags METH_VARARGS means function takes variable number of args
static PyMethodDef fileperm_methods[] = {
	{ "get_perms", get_perms, METH_VARARGS },
	{ NULL }
};



void initfileperm()
{

Py_InitModule("fileperm",fileperm_methods);

}

Python code

One thing the extension doesn't do is process the access mask into human readable names. Python can easily do that as shown in the program below. This program looks down a directory tree, takes the access mask and the login/group information, processes the access mask to produce human readable names and prints out the permission structure for the tree.
import os
import sys
import win32net
import string
import time
import copy
import getopt

#the extension module
import fileperm

All_perms={
    1:"ACCESS_READ",            #0x00000001
    2:"ACCESS_WRITE",           #0x00000002
    4:"ACCESS_CREATE",          #0x00000004
    8:"ACCESS_EXEC",            #0x00000008
    16:"ACCESS_DELETE",         #0x00000010
    32:"ACCESS_ATRIB [sic]",    #0x00000020
    64:"ACCESS_PERM",           #0x00000040
    32768:"ACCESS_GROUP",       #0x00008000
    65536:"DELETE",             #0x00010000
    131072:"READ_CONTROL",      #0x00020000
    262144:"WRITE_DAC",         #0x00040000
    524288:"WRITE_OWNER",       #0x00080000
    1048576:"SYNCHRONIZE",      #0x00100000
    16777216:"ACCESS_SYSTEM_SECURITY",#0x01000000
    33554432:"MAXIMUM_ALLOWED", #0x02000000
    268435456:"GENERIC_ALL",    #0x10000000
    536870912:"GENERIC_EXECUTE",#0x20000000
    1073741824:"GENERIC_WRITE", #0x40000000
    65535:"SPECIFIC_RIGHTS_ALL",#0x0000ffff
    983040:"STANDARD_RIGHTS_REQUIRED",#0x000f0000
    2031616:"STANDARD_RIGHTS_ALL",#0x001f0000
    }

Typical_perms={
    2032127L:"Full Control(All)",
    1179817L:"Read(RX)",
    1180086L:"Add",
    1180095L:"Add&Read",
    1245631L:"Change"
}


def get_mask(mask):
    a=2147483648L
    if Typical_perms.has_key(mask):
        return Typical_perms[mask]
    else:
        result=''
        while a>>1:
            a=a>>1
            masked=mask&a
            if masked:
                if All_perms.has_key(masked):
                    result=All_perms[masked]+':'+result
    return result


def is_group(sys_id):
    #get the server for the domain -- it has to be a primary dc
    group=0
    resume=0
    sys_id=string.strip(sys_id)
    if D_group.has_key(sys_id):
        group=1
    elif D_except.has_key(sys_id):
        group=0
    else:
        try:
            #info returns a dictionary of information
            info = win32net.NetGroupGetInfo(Server, sys_id, 0)
            group=1
        except:
            try:
                win32net.NetLocalGroupGetMembers(Server, sys_id, 0,resume,4096)
                group=1
            except:
                pass
    return group


def get_perm_base(file):
    all_perms=fileperm.get_perms(file)
    for (domain_id,mask) in all_perms.items():
        (domain,sys_id)=string.split(domain_id,'\\',1)
        mask_name=get_mask(mask)
        Results.append(file+','+sys_id+','+mask_name)

def get_perm(file):
    perm_list=[]
    perm_list.append(file)
    all_perms=fileperm.get_perms(file)
    for (domain_id,mask) in all_perms.items():
        (domain,sys_id)=string.split(domain_id,'\\',1)
        print domain,sys_id
        sys_id=str(sys_id)
        mask_name=get_mask(mask)
        if len(sys_id)<7:
            perm_list.append(sys_id+'\t\t\t'+mask_name)
        elif len(sys_id)>14:
            perm_list.append(sys_id+'\t'+mask_name)
        else:
            perm_list.append(sys_id+'\t\t'+mask_name)
    return perm_list
def get_perms(arg, d, files):
    a=2147483648L #1L<<31L
    print 'Now at ',d
    for i in files:
        file=d+'\\'+i
        if opts['-d']:
            if not os.path.isdir(file): # skip non-directories
                continue
        all_perms=fileperm.get_perms(file)
        for (domain_id,mask) in all_perms.items():
            if string.find(domain_id,'\\')!=-1:
                (domain,sys_id)=string.split(domain_id,'\\',1)
            else:
                sys_id=domain_id
            mask_name=get_mask(mask)    
            Results.append(file+','+sys_id+','+mask_name)
    Results.sort()
    return Results
######################################################################################################
#h - help
#r - recursive
#o - output file
#d - directories only

domain='bedrock'

Server=str(win32net.NetGetDCName("",domain))
print '************************ Using domain ',domain

only_dir=0
D_group={}
D_except={}
if len(sys.argv)==1:
    print sys.argv[0]," file or directory"
    print "-r for recursive mode \n-o for output file (default screen) \n-d for directories only"
    print 'Example:',sys.argv[0],'-o a.txt -r c:\\junk  \n ----goes down dir tree in c:\\junk and saves in a.txt'
    sys.exit(0)    
else:
    try:
        optlist, args = getopt.getopt(sys.argv[1:], 'dho:r')
    except getopt.error:
       print "invalid option.  available options are: -d -h -r -o "
       print "-r for recursive mode \n-o for output file (default screen) \n-d for directories only"

       sys.exit(0)

    opts = {'-d':0,'-h':0,'-o':0,'-r':0}
    for key, value in optlist:
        opts[key]=1
        if key == '-o':
            opts[key]=value
    init=time.clock()


    Results=[]
    if opts['-r']:
        if os.path.isdir(args[0]):
            print 'walking thru',args[0]
            get_perm_base(args[0])
            os.path.walk(args[0],get_perms,opts['-d'])
        else:
            print 'Directory',args[0],'does not exist'
            sys.exit(0)
    else:
        if os.path.exists(args[0]):
            Results=get_perm(args[0])
        else:
            print 'Directory or file',args[0],'does not exist'
            sys.exit(0)
        
    #now print out the results
    if opts['-o']:
        #send to a file
        print 'Storing results in',opts['-o']
        f=open(opts['-o'],'w')
        for i in Results:
            f.write(i)
            f.write('\n')
    else:
        for i in Results:
            print i
        end = time.clock()-init


In Conclusion

Extending python isn't as simple as writing python, but it greatly expands python's capabilities. There are many details not covered here like reference counting, threading, and error handeling. The python website has documentation about Extending Python.


Further Info


Author

John Nielsen, jn@who.net
-- Have a great time with programming with python!

 

   Extending Python (directory permisisions w/GetNamedSecurityInfo)