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ActivePerl User Guide
ActiveState

Using PPM to install modules

NAME

Using PPM to install modules

DESCRIPTION

How to install and upgrade modules using PPM

What is the PPM?

The Programmer's Package Manager (PPM), formerly known as the Perl Package Manager, provides a command line interface for managing your modules and extensions (packages). PPM is used to access package repositories (or collections of packages on other machines), install and remove packages from your system, as well as update previously installed packages with the latest versions.

The PPM 3.0 release introduces a complete rewrite of PPM, featuring many additions and improvements. To maintain compatibility and provide a smooth migration path, PPM3 will coexist with the current PPM.

How do I install PPM?

Both PPM versions 2 and PPM version 3 (PPM3) are installed when you install ActivePerl.

How do I run PPM?

Before you run PPM or PPM3, you must either be connected to the Internet or have access to a local repository, like a hard drive or the ActiveState ActiveCD. If your Internet connection is via a firewall or proxy, you must set the environment variable "HTTP_proxy" to the name of the proxy server. If your proxy server requires a username and password, use the environment variables "HTTP_proxy_user" and "HTTP_proxy_pass". See PPM, Proxies and Firewalls for more information.

To run PPM version 2, enter ppm in a command prompt window (Windows), or ppm3 at the shell prompt (Linux / Solaris).

How do I use PPM?

Quick start: at the PPM3 command prompt, type search * to get a listing of all available packages, then type install <package name>, where <package name> is the name of a package displayed by the search command. To list the packages you have previously installed using PPM3, use the query * command.

Those using PPM can type 'search' to get a listing of all available packages, then type 'install <packagename>', where <packagename> is the name of a package displayed by the 'search' command. To list the packages you have previously installed using PPM, use the 'query' command.

Note to PPM users: If you find the listing of packages scrolls by too quickly, you may want to use the command 'set more <number>' to pause the listing after <number> packages have been displayed. Use the 'set save' command to save this configuration for future PPM sessions.

The first time you run PPM or PPM3, the ActiveState package repository will be your default repository. If you change your default repository, that change will be saved. PPM3 users can can select a different repository with the repository command. PPM users will use the 'set' command. See Where are the package repositories? below.

PPM version 3 Commands

Items in <angle brackets> are arguments that can be used with the commands, while items in [square brackets] are optional elements. PPM3 will recognize and accept shortened versions of the commands, as long as enough letters are typed to be recognized by PPM3. For example, "des" can be typed instead of "describe".

Describe

describe

Describes default/current package

describe <number>

Describes package <number> in the current search set

describe <range>

Describes packages in the given <range> from the current search set

describe <name>

Describes named package

describe <glob pattern>

Performs a new search using <glob pattern>

When used, describe returns information about a package, including the name of the package, the author's name and a brief description (called an "Abstract") about the package. For example, when you enter:

describe libnet

PPM3 will return:

===============================
Package 1
    Name: libnet
 Version: 1.07.03
  Author: Graham Barr
Abstract: Collection of Network protocol modules
Implementations:
	1.sun4-solaris-thread-multi
	2.i686-linux-thread-multi
	3.MSWIn32-x86-multi-thread
===============================

When the describe command is called without arguments, it returns information about the first package in the current search. If there is no default search set, you'll be prompted to use search to find a package.

If describe is called with a numeric argument, that number is set as the default package and the information about that package is returned. If the number given doesn't exist, you'll be prompted to use search to find a package. Also, you can use describe to give descriptions of several packages. For example:

describe 4-7

will give you descriptions of packages 4 through 7, in the current search request. You can also enter:

describe 3-4,10

to get information on packages 3, 4 and 10.

When the describe command is given a name with a wildcard (such as "*" or "?") it executes the search command with the given argument. With this, you can type something like describe Tk* and the search will give you the name(s) of any packages that match your search parameters.

See Also: Properties

Exit

exit

Exits the program

When you leave the PPM3 environment, the current settings are saved.

See Also: Quit

Help

help

lists available commands

help <command>

lists detailed help about a specific command

The help command provides a brief description of the commands available within PPM3. For help on a specific command, enter help followed by the command. For example, enter help settings or help set for a detailed description of the settings command.

There are some extra help topics built into PPM3. They can be accessed within the PPM3 environment as follows:

HELP COMMAND

DESCRIPTION

help ppm_migration

shows more details about the changes from previous versions of PPM

help quickstart

an easy-to-follow guide to getting started with PPM3

help prompt

provides a detailed explanation about the PPM3 prompt

help queryformat

gives the user extra tips and hints about making effective searches/queries in PPM3

Install

install

Installs default package

install <number>

Installs packages by a specific number

install <range>

Installs packages in the given numeric range <range>.

install <name>

Installs named package

The install command is used to install packages from the repository. You can install packages by name or number (the number is given by the repository or search request), or a default package can be established through use of the describe command. There is also a set of modifiers that can be used with the install command:

-force  -noforce
-follow -nofollow

The force and follow commands determine how packages are installed:

FORCE

FOLLOW

RESULT

false

false

Checks to see if the package is installed and if it is, PPM3 stops. If there are any missing prerequisites, the installation will fail.

false

true

Checks to see if the package is installed and if it is, PPM3 stops. If there are any missing prerequisites, they are automatically installed.

true

false

If the package is installed, PPM3 will reinstall the package. If there are any missing prerequisites, the installation will fail. NOTE: This is the default setting when PPM3 is first installed.

true

true

If the package is installed, PPM3 will reinstall the package. If there are any missing prerequisites, they are automatically installed.

If you do not specify any options, install uses the default settings. Set or view the current defaults using the settings command.

For example:

install foo

will install the package named "foo", using the default settings. You can over-ride the defaults with the install modifiers.

For example:

install foo -force

will install the "foo" package, even if it has already been installed. If both -force and -follow are set to "true", all the prerequisites for any package you install will be installed. For example, the installation of a tk-related package, like "tk-ach" which is 8.4 kB will be preceded by the installation of Tk, which is 1.7 MB.

You can also install by package number. The numbering of the packages is based on the current repository or current search request. For example:

install 6

installs package number 6. You can install more than one package at one time:

install 3-5

installs packages 3, 4 and 5. You can also type install 3-6,8 to receive packages 3,4,5,6 and 8.

Profile

profile

lists profiles available on the repository

profile <number>

switches to the given profile

profile add <name>

creates a new profile on the repository

profile del <number>

deletes the given profile

profile save

saves the client state to the current profile

profile restore

restores the current profile

With profiles, package installation and management is easy to oversee. By using profiles, you can save your favorite perl packages in a single profile or group packages by function in different profiles. This also makes installation of packages easier, as you only need to access one or two profiles, instead of many individual packages.

Managing your profiles can be done through PPM3 or via the ActiveState Interactive website.

Note: The profile commands are only available if the current repository is a PPM3 repository.

Properties

properties

Describes default installed package

properties <number>

Describes installed package <number>

properties <package name>

Describes named installed package

properties <glob pattern>

Performs a new query using <glob pattern>

Similar to the describe command, properties provides information on an installed package, but with more details than those available with describe. In addition to the summary information, properties will display the installation date and a URL showing the location of the package within the repository.

Note: When properties is called with arguments including a wildcard, it prints a message telling you that it is about to forward the whole command-line to query; then it does. With this, you can type "properties Tk*" or "prop Tk*".

For example, typing properties libnet will give you:

    Name: libnet
 Version: 1.07.03
  Author: Graham Barr
Abstract: Collection of Network protocol modules
InstDate: Fri Oct  2 16:15:15 1998
Location: http://ppm.ActiveState.com/cgibin/PPM/ppmserver.pl?urn:/PPMServer

See Also: Describe

Quit

Quit

exits the program.

Quit is another command used to close the PPM application. Like the exit command; when you close PPM3, the current settings will be saved.

See Also: Exit

Query

query

Displays list of previous queries

query <number>

Displays results of previous query

query <glob pattern>

Performs a new query using <glob pattern>

query *

Displays a list of all installed packages

The query command displays either a list of all installed packages or a shortened list, based on the <glob pattern> entered. You can also check the list of past queries or the results of a past query.

Note: Depending on the value of "case-sensitivity", the query may or may not be case-sensitive. See "help settings" for how to affect the case sensitivity.

See Also: Settings

Remove

remove

Deletes default installed package

remove <number>

Deletes a package by a specific number

remove <range>

Deletes a <range> of packages

remove <name>

Deletes a package by a specific name

The remove command deletes packages from your current target. Packages can be removed by package name or by their numerical listing. For example:

remove XML-DOM

will delete the XML-DOM package from your target. Also, you can remove package by number:

remove 6

and the 6th package in your current query will be removed. If you have no query requests established, you'll be required to use query to find a package before you delete it. It's important to remember that removing packages also clears all previous query requests, since the numerical sequence stored in any query will no longer be true once package(s) have been removed.

Packages can also be removed in groups; for example:

remove 4-7

will delete packages 4, 5, 6, and 7 from your target. You can also skip packages in the removal process:

remove 3-5, 7

this will delete packages 3, 4, 5 and 7...but it will leave 6 intact. Remember to run a new query whenever you remove a package from your target.

Please note that wildcards like "*" or "?" cannot be used with the remove command.

See Also: Uninstall

Repository

repository

displays all repositories

repository [set] <number>

sets the specified repository active

repository add [name] <repository location>

adds a new repository

repository del <number>

deletes the specified repository

repository describe [number]

displays the name, location and type of the specified (or current) repository

When used with no arguments, repository (or "rep") will list the repositories currently within the PPM3 settings. The default repository is highlighted with a leading "*".

For example, when you enter:

rep

PPM3 will return something resembling this:

Repositories:
* 1. ActiveCD.
  2. ActiveState Package Repository

With the example above, entering rep set 2 will make the second repository (ActiveState Package Repository) the active repository. Adding another repository is done like this:

rep add <NAME> <LOCATION>

for example:

rep add TheoryX5 http://theoryx5.uwinnipeg.ca/cgi-bin/ppmserver?urn:/PPMServer

with "TheoryX5" being the name of the repository (for easy reference) and the location noted by the http location. If you were to enter rep again, you would see:

ppm>rep
Repositories:
  1. ActiveCD
* 2. ActiveState Package Repository
  3. TheoryX5

If you wanted to remove the ActiveCD repository, you would type rep del 1, to remove the 1st repository. To get more information on a particular repository, type res describe to get information on the current repository or res describe <number> to get information on a specific repository.

For example:

rep describe 2

will return:

Describing Repository 2:
    Name: ActiveState Package Repository
Location: http://ppm.ActiveState.com/cgibin/PPM/ppmserver.pl?urn:/PPMServer
    Type: PPMServer 2.00

Search

search

Displays list of previous searches

search <number>

Displays results of search <number>

search <glob pattern>

Performs a new search

search <field>=<glob pattern>

Searches for all packages matching the field - the available fields are ABSTRACT, NAME or TITLE, AUTHOR and VERSION - NAME is the default search setting

search *

Searches for all packages in the current repository

Search is used to look through the repository for packages. With PPM, you can perform powerful and detailed searches. Here are some examples:

COMMAND

MEANING

SAMPLE RESULTS

search CGI

Search for 'CGI' anywhere in the name

Apache-CGI
CGI-Application
CGI-ArgChecker

search CGI*

Search for 'CGI' at beginning of name

CGI-Application
CGI-ArgChecker

search AUTHOR=smith

Search for all modules authored by someone with 'smith' in their name or email

Apache-ProxyPass
Business-ISBN

search ABSTRACT=compress

Search for 'compress' anywhere in the abstract

Apache-GzipChain
IO-Zlib

search CGI or ABSTRACT=web

Search for 'CGI' in the name, or 'web' in the abstract

CGI-XMLForm
HTML-Clean

search XML and (parser or ABSTRACT=pars) and not XPath

Search for 'XML' in the name and either 'parser' in the name or 'pars' in the abstract, but not with 'XPath' in the name

XML-Node
XML-Parser-EasyTree

search Data::Grove

PPM Server 3.0 repositories only: Search by module name, even if unrelated to the containing package

libxml-perl

search *

Browse all packages in the repository

Affix-Infix2Postfix
AI-Fuzzy
AI-NeuralNet-BackProp
[... 1700+ more]

You can recall previous searches with the search <number> command, as PPM stores past searches.

Settings

settings

displays current options

settings <name>

displays the current setting of the given <name>

settings <name> <value>

sets <name> to <value>

The settings command gives you access to the different options that PPM has available. This can be modified to better suit your needs when using PPM.

Available settings:

NAME

VALUE

DESCRIPTION

case-sensitivity

"0" or "1"

If set to "1", searches and queries are case-sensitive.

download-chunksize

integer

If this is set to a positive, non-zero integer, PPM updates the status after each "integer" of bytes transferred during an install or upgrade.

follow-install

"0" or "1"

See install for details.

force-install

"0" or "1"

See install for details.

page-lines

integer

The number of lines to display per page. If a result has fewer than "page-lines", it will be printed directly to the screen regardless of the "pager" setting.

pager

path

The path to an external pager program used to page long displays. If left blank, the internal pager is used.

prompt-context

"0" or "1"

If "1", enables the prompt to change based on the current state of PPM, i.e. showing current target, query, etc.

prompt-slotsize

integer

If prompt-verbose is "1", this defines the width of each slot in the prompt. For instance, "4" means to use 4 character-wide slots.

prompt-verbose

"0" or "1"

If "0", uses numbers to represent the context in the prompt; much shorter. If prompt-context is set to "0", there will be no visible difference in the prompt-verbose settings.

sort-field

field

The field by which to sort search and query results. Valid fields are ABSTRACT, NAME or TITLE, AUTHOR and VERSION. Note: these fields are case-sensitive.

tempdir

path

A temporary directory into which packages are downloaded and expanded during "install" and "upgrade".

trace-file

path

A file to which PPM will write tracing information.

trace-level

integer

If 0 or negative, tracing is disabled. Any positive integer results in tracing information. Higher numbers mean more tracing information.

PPM options: If you are looking for old options understood by previous version of PPM, please see "help ppm_migration".

Note: When you assign a value, PPM saves its configuration. That means all values automatically persist across sessions. Also, setting names may be abbreviated to uniqueness. Instead of typing "case-sensitivity", you may type "case".

Target

target

Displays a list of targets

target <number>

Sets <number> as default target

target describe [number]

Describes the given (or default) target

target set <key> <val>

Sets the target's <key> to <val>

A target is a location where packages are installed, a directory where the packages you want to install are placed when they're downloaded from the repository. For example, entering:

target

will return:

Targets:
  1. ActivePerl 618
* 2. ActivePerl 630

This shows us that we have 2 targets available to us and that the second target (ActivePerl 630) is currently the default, as noted by the asterisk. The ability to choose different targets allows PPM to manage several installations of Perl from one command-line.

Note: Currently, PPM only supports Perl but will be expanded for other languages in the near future. You can have several versions of Perl on your system and each version will be recognized as a unique target by PPM.

Tree

tree

displays the dependency-tree of the default package

tree <number>

displays the dependency-tree of the given <number>

tree <range>

displays a <range> of dependency trees

tree <name>

displays the dependency-tree of the named package

The tree command is used to show the what is known as the "dependncy tree" of a given package. That is, a list of additional packages that are required to make a given package perform as expected. For example, entering:

tree SOAP-lite

would return something that looks like this:

====================
SOAP-Lite 0.46
    |__MIME-tools 5.316
    |   |__MailTools 1.15
    |   \__IO-stringy 1.216
    |
    \__MIME-Lite 2.105
====================

As we can see, SOAP-Lite would require 4 other packages to be installed with it.

When tree is called without a <name> or <number>, tree will return the dependency tree of the first package in the default search result. If there is no default search, you will be requested to use search to find a package.

Uninstall

uninst

Removes default installed package

uninst <number>

Removes installed package <number>

uninst <range>

Removes a <range> of installed packages

uninst <name>

Removes named installed package

Like the remove command, uninstall enables you to delete installed packages. This can be done by name or by the numerical listing of packages. Also like the remove command, uninstalling any packages will clear all previous query requests.

See Also: Remove

Upgrade

upgrade [*]

Lists upgrades available for all installed packages

upgrade <number>

Upgrades installed package <number>

upgrade <range>

Upgrades a <range> of installed packages

upgrade <package>

Upgrades the named <package>

There are several modifiers to the upgrade command, as well:

OPTION

DESCRIPTION

Install

Installs, rather than lists, available upgrades

Precious

Allows upgrading of "precious" packages

Force

See install

Follow

See install

By default, upgrade typed by itself only lists the available upgrades. To actually install all available upgrades, enter:

upgrade -install

To enable upgrading "precious" packages, type:

upgrade -install -precious

Version

Version

displays the installed PPM version number.

PPM version 2 Commands

A summary of PPM version 2 commands is shown below. Type help <command> at the PPM prompt for usage details. Items in [brackets] are optional.

Command Function
genconfig prints a minimal PPM configuration file to STDOUT [Note: genconfig only works from the command-line]
help [command] lists available commands, or help on 'command'.
install package1 [package2...] installs specified packages.
quit exits the program.
query [pattern] lists installed packages, or packages containing pattern.
query /abstract [pattern] lists descriptions of installed packages, or package descriptions containing pattern.
remove package1 [package2...] removes the specified packages from the system.
search [pattern] lists available packages, or packages containing pattern.
search /abstract [pattern] lists descriptions of available packages, or package descriptions containing pattern.
set set/display current options.
set save save current options.
verify [package1...] verifies currently installed packages are up to date.
verify /upgrade [package1...] installs available package upgrades.
version displays the PPM version number

A pattern is a search string just like the regular expressions - for example if you search for with this command

search ODBC|DBI

(which means 'search for packages in which the characters ODBC and/or the characters DBI are present in that order') you get a result like this

Apache-DBI
DBD-ODBC
DBI
FindBin
Win32-ODBC

Note that if you use 'search /abstract [pattern]' the search will only include the ABSTRACT section of the package files.

Where are the package repositories?

By default, PPM will use the ActiveState package repository, but there are other repositories on the Internet. At the moment there are these repositories:

Note: most of these repositories are for ActivePerl 5xx builds only; they may not be compatible with ActivePerl 6xx builds. Check these repositories for the latest updates:

http://ppm-ia.ActiveState.com/PPM/ppmserver.plex?urn:/PPM/Server/SQL New 3.0 Repository from ActiveState
http://www.ActiveState.com/cgibin/PPM/ppmserver.plex?urn:/PPMServer The default package repository from ActiveState
http://theoryx5.uwinnipeg.ca/cgi-bin/ppmserver?urn:/PPMServer University of Winnipeg
http://Jenda.Krynicky.cz/perl Jan Krynicky's package repository
http://www.roth.net/perl/packages/ Roth Consulting's package repository
http://www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/~ach/ptk/ppm Achim Bohnet's package repository
http://rto.dk/packages/ RTO's packages repository (mostly mirrors of the above)

http://www.fastnetltd.ndirect.co.uk/Perl/zips/ Fastnet Software Ltd's packages - not directly accessible from PPM at present

For PPM3 users

To use these package repositories you start PPM3 and at the prompt type:

repository add NAME URL

where NAME is a name by which you want to reference the repository from PPM and URL is the URL to the repository. Please note that NAME is optional, as PPM will assign a name to the repository for you. For example, entering:

repository add JENDA http://Jenda.Krynicky.cz/perl

will create a repository for you, by the name of JENDA and give you access to the modules available there.

For PPM users

To use these package repositories you start PPM and at the prompt type

set repository NAME URL

where NAME is a name by which you want to reference the repository from PPM and URL is the URL to the repository. You could for example type

set repository JENDA http://Jenda.Krynicky.cz/perl

The next time you do a 'search' you will not only search the ActiveState package repository but also the repositories you have added. Before you exit PPM you should save the changes to the configuration by issuing the command 'set save'.

How do I make a PPM package?

If you want to make a PPM package for use on other machine you can do it like this:

Specify the AUTHOR and ABSTRACT parameters in the Makefile.PL. However you should only pass them to WriteMakefile if the version of the perl is greater than 5.005 - older perls do not have these parameters added and do not expect to see them. This is an example Makefile.PL:

use ExtUtils::MakeMaker;
# See lib/ExtUtils/MakeMaker.pm for details of how to influence
# the contents of the Makefile that is written.
WriteMakefile(
    'NAME' => 'Term::Control',
    'VERSION_FROM' => 'Control.pm', # finds $VERSION
    ($] ge '5.005') ? (
        'AUTHOR' => 'Johnny Doel (johnny@doel.org)',
        'ABSTRACT' => 'Control the IO for terminals',
    ) : (),
);

Then you make the archive with the commands

perl Makefile.PL
nmake

The resulting files are placed in the blib directory that is created when you run nmake. These files should be packed into an archive like this:

tar cvf package.tar blib
gzip --best package.tar

You now have an archive called package.tar.gz. Then you generate the PPD file by:

nmake ppd

You have to edit the resulting PPD file and add the location of the package archive into <CODEBASE HREF="" />. The location is relative to the PPD file.

You can get nmake from http://download.microsoft.com/download/vc15/Patch/1.52/W95/EN-US/Nmake15.exe.

PPM, Proxies and Firewalls

If you use a proxy server or firewall, you might have trouble running PPM. Here is the solution.

NOTE: If none of the changes in this document work for you, you may download individual packages from here [ActivePerl 613 and later] or here [ActivePerl 522 and earlier] and install them according to the directions in the README file contained within the ZIP file. If you want, you can also keep a local repository, with several .ppd files in a permanent repository directory, and their .tar.gz files in an x86 directory beneath that.

  1. Set Environment Vars

Up to three environment variables need to be set.

Under Windows 2000
Right click on "My Computer", click on "Properties" and select the "Advanced" tab. Click the button marked "Environment Variables" and make the following changes in the "System Variables" window:

  1. With the "New" button, add the setting HTTP_proxy, with your proxy name as the value (you must include "http://"), followed by a colon and the proxy port, if applicable; e.g., "http://proxy:8080"
  2. If you require a user name and/or password to access your proxy, use the "New" button to add the settings HTTP_proxy_user and HTTP_proxy_pass, with your user name and password as the respective values.

Under Windows NT
Right click on "My Computer", click on "Properties", select the "Environment" tab. These are your environment settings. Make the following changes:

  1. Add the setting HTTP_proxy, with your proxy name as the value (you must include "http://"), followed by a colon and the proxy port, if applicable; e.g., "http://proxy:8080"
  2. If you require a user name and/or password to access your proxy, add the settings HTTP_proxy_user and HTTP_proxy_pass, with your user name and password as the respective values.

Under Windows 9x
In your AUTOEXEC.BAT file, place the following lines then reboot so the changes can take effect:

  1. SET HTTP_proxy=<your proxy server (you must include "http://", followed by a colon and the proxy port, if applicable; e.g., SET HTTP_proxy=http://proxy:8080
  2. SET HTTP_proxy_user=<your user name> (if required)
  3. SET HTTP_proxy_pass=<your password> (if required)
  1. Try using PPM

With your internet connection active, try using PPM again. Try to install a small package, like File-Slurp. You'll know that it still fails if you see an error stating that it can't find a ppd file for the specified package.

  1. Further Information and Help

If there were problems with any of the above hints, please see Troubleshooting for information regarding further help.

AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

This FAQ was originally assembled and maintained by Evangelo Prodromou. It has been revised and updated by Brian Jepson of O'Reilly & Associates, David Grove, David Dmytryshyn, and Murray Nesbitt of ActiveState, Henning Michael Møller-Nielsen of RTO, Kevin Meltzer, and David Sparks of ActiveState.

This FAQ is in the public domain. If you use it, however, please ensure that you give credit to the original authors.

 ActivePerl FAQ - PPM